Arguing, proving, inferring, concluding, solving a mathematical problem, might all be said to be kinds of reasoning. Their aims and purposes are different. The aim of argument is conviction; one tries to get someone to agree that some statement is true or false. You may get a man to agree that a statement is true by showing him that it follows from other statements which he already accepts. You may get him to agree that a statement is false because from it there follows another which he rejects.
(P. F. Strawson, Introduction to Logical Theory [London: Methuen, 1952], 12)
Note from KBJ: Argumentation is necessarily ad hominem, i.e., directed to a particular person (or set of like-minded people).